Tuesday, April 29, 2014

"WARNING: Mismatch found between sl_table and pg_class." in Slony-I

WARNING: Mismatch found between sl_table and pg_class. Slonik command REPAIR CONFIG may be useful to rectify this.
2014-04-26 07:32:54 PDT FATAL slon_node_health_check() returned false - fatal health problem!
REPAIR CONFIG may be helpful to rectify this problem
You see this WARNING message in logs and immediate stop of replication, if Slony has observed a mismatch of pg_class.oid and sl_table.tabreloid of a replicating table in a node. Because, by architecture slony holds all replicating objects OID information in its catalogs captured at configure time from pg_class.oid.

In which case pg_class.oid != sl_table.tabreloid ?

Most cases, a node moved its place using pg_dump/pg_restore by causing objects OID to change.

To mimic the above WARNING message, I have used two node replication setup between two database on same cluster[5432] for few tables. (Refer here on how to setup Slony replication). Here's the current OID information on slave node(demo database) for one of the object 'dtest':
demo=# select oid,relfilenode,relname from pg_class where relname='dtest';
  oid  | relfilenode | relname
-------+-------------+---------
 26119 |       26119 | detest
(1 row)
demo=# select tab_id,tab_reloid,tab_relname from _rf.sl_table where tab_relname='dtest';
 tab_id | tab_reloid | tab_relname
--------+------------+-------------
      2 |      26119 | dtest
(1 row)
Ok, 'dtest' OID 26119 stored in slony catalog in sl_table.tabreloid.(Slony schema _rf). Take the logical backup and restore of same demo database simply to change the object OID like below: (Remember, Slon process are stopped at this moment)
-bash-4.1$ pg_dump -Fc -p 5432 -U postgres demo >/tmp/demo93.dmp
-bash-4.1$ psql -c "alter database demo rename to demo_bk;"
-bash-4.1$ psql -c "create database demo;"
-bash-4.1$ pg_restore -Fc -p 5432 -U postgres -d demo /tmp/demo93.dmp
-bash-4.1$ psql -c "select oid,relfilenode,relname from pg_class where relname='dtest';"
  oid  | relfilenode | relname
-------+-------------+---------
 26640 |       26640 | dtest
(1 row)
-bash-4.1$ psql -c "select tab_id,tab_reloid,tab_relname from _rf.sl_table where tab_relname='dtest';"
 tab_id | tab_reloid | tab_relname
--------+------------+-------------
      2 |      26119 | dtest
(1 row)
Now, pg_class.oid of 'dtest' has changed to 26640 whereas sl_table.tab_reloid still reflects the old OID 26119. At this stage if we start slon process it essentially stops with WARNING message on mismatch of OID by running a query pg_class.oid = sl_table.tabreloid. On returning false result it won't move ahead until its fixed. We can also call the function slon_node_health_check() explicitly for verification :
demo=# select _rf.slon_node_health_check();
WARNING:  table [id,nsp,name]=[1,a,public] - sl_table does not match pg_class/pg_namespace
WARNING:  table [id,nsp,name]=[2,dtest,public] - sl_table does not match pg_class/pg_namespace
WARNING:  table [id,nsp,name]=[3,movepage,public] - sl_table does not match pg_class/pg_namespace
WARNING:  Mismatch found between sl_table and pg_class.  Slonik command REPAIR CONFIG may be useful to rectify this.
 slon_node_health_check
------------------------
 f
(1 row)
We can fix this in two ways.

  1. Using Slonik command line utility with preamble script REPAIR CONFIG or 
  2. Using Slony catalog function updatereloid() within psql terminal.

Method 1: Create preamble script as below and execute with slonik command. I would be using second method, its just for reference.
demo=# \o /tmp/repair_conf.slonik
demo=# select 'REPAIR CONFIG ( SET ID = '||set_id||', EVENT NODE = 1 );' FROM _rf.sl_set;
demo=# \o

Add nodes information at the beginning of the file "/tmp/repair_conf.slonik"

cluster name = rf;
node 1 admin conninfo = 'host=localhost dbname=postgres user=postgres port=5432 password=postgres';
node 2 admin conninfo = 'host=localhost dbname=demo  user=postgres port=5432 password=postgres';

 REPAIR CONFIG ( SET ID = 1, EVENT NODE = 2 );
 REPAIR CONFIG ( SET ID = 2, EVENT NODE = 2 );
 REPAIR CONFIG ( SET ID = 3, EVENT NODE = 2 );

-bash-4.1$ slonik /tmp/repair_conf.slonik
Method 2: Pass the table-set id and node information to a function:
demo=# select _rf.updatereloid(tab_set,2) from _rf.sl_table ;   
 updatereloid
--------------
            1
            1
            1
(3 rows)
Cool, lets check the OID information now on slave node (demo database) from pg_class and _slonycatalog.sl_table
-bash-4.1$  psql -d demo -c "select oid,relfilenode,relname from pg_class where relname='dtest';"
  oid  | relfilenode | relname
-------+-------------+---------
 26119 |       26119 | dtest
(1 row)

-bash-4.1$ psql -d demo -c "select tab_id,tab_reloid,tab_relname from _rf.sl_table where tab_relname='dtest';"
 tab_id | tab_reloid | tab_relname
--------+------------+-------------
      2 |      26119 | dtest
(1 row)
After the update, slony will begin syncing without any issues.
Thanks to Slony-I team.

--Raghav

Tuesday, April 22, 2014

Faster statistics update after upgrade using "vacuumdb --analyze-in-stages" in PostgreSQL 9.4

As all of you know after upgrading the database server from one version to other major version, ANALYZE command should be executed to update the pg_catalogs on newly populated data. On a huge upgraded database, its a challenge for the application to gain its performance back without updating the statistics. In PostgreSQL 9.4, an option "vacuumdb --analyze-in-stages" will make this work faster to produce usable statistics required by the optimizer.  It runs in three stages with different configuration settings(default_statistics_target/vacuum_cost_delay) to analyze the database.

If the database followed any of the up-gradation procedure like pg_dump/pg_restore or pg_upgrade, then its recommended to use "vacuumdb --analyze-in-stages"

Sample output:
bash-4.1$ /usr/local/pgpatch/pg/bin/vacuumdb -p 9999 --analyze-in-stages -d tester
Generating minimal optimizer statistics (1 target)
Generating medium optimizer statistics (10 targets)
Generating default (full) optimizer statistics

Sunday, April 6, 2014

While performing PITR, would it be possible to Pause/Resume in PostgreSQL ?

Yes, truly possible and handled smartly by PostgreSQL. To demo this, first I need to take after the standard technique of Point in Time Recovery in PostgreSQL. Various Books/Articles/Blogs demoed extremely well by extraordinary authors, hence am not going into details of how to do it, however, heading off directly to the subject i.e., how to pause while recovering with same technique. Arguably, I put forth a mathematical expression out of PITR as "PITR = (Last Filesystem Backup(LFB) + WAL Archives generated after LFB + Un-Archived WAL's in current $PGDATA/pg_xlogs)". For better understanding, I have put this into graph, in light of the fact that it clear the thought more: (Sorry, this blog is bit long, unknowingly it happened while going in details of the concept)


PITR steps,which am going to follow with slight changes that I talk about soon:

Step 1. Restore the most recent File System-level backup(FSB) to any location where recovery is planned to perform.
Step 2. If FSB is tar,then untar it, and clean the pg_xlog directory leaving archive_status. If backup has excluded this directory, then create the empty pg_xlog directory in FSB.
Step 3. Copy un-archived WAL's from crashed cluster $PGDATA/pg_xlog into $FSB/pg_xlog (Step 2)
Step 4. Delete the postmaster.pid from FSB directory.
Step 5. Create recovery.conf file in FSB directory.
Step 6. Start the cluster (FSB). 

We should put question, when pausing the recovery required ?. Maybe, to prevent multiple base restorations or roll-forward recovery but check in between or rollback a particular tables data or interest to see how far it has recovered :). Remember, pause in recovery means, its allowing to connect while recovering. To outline this, I have reproduced a situation in chart of a particular table rows improvement until to a mishap.


From above diagram, its agreeable a DEMO table rows were 10,00,000 when file system-level backup($PGDATA) taken and 40,00,000 rows before crash. In my local VM, I have made the situation on groundwork of TIME instead of date.

Pre-Requisite:
1. File System-Level Backup when DEMO tables having 10,00,000 rows.
2. From that point forward, WAL Archives before crash where DEMO table having 40,00,000 rows.
3. WAL Archives Location: /opt/PostgreSQL/9.3/archives.
4. Data Directory : /opt/PostgreSQL/9.3/data (PGDATA)
5. Backup Location : /opt/PostgreSQL/9.3/backups

Keep in mind, working with pause recovery need compulsory changes on main cluster($PGDATA) "wal_level" set to "hot_standby" and on recovery cluster(file system-level backup) "hot_standby" set to "ON". I have made these changes to main cluster, restarted the cluster to take effect and initiated the backup. If you don't mind make a note it simply a demo, so my WAL archives might not be gigantic  number's as they are in few numbers. I have listed WAL archives too here, which were generated from the time of backup to crash.
-bash-4.1$ psql -c "select count(*), now() from demo;"
  count  |              now
---------+-------------------------------
 1000000 | 2014-04-04 15:06:04.036928-07
(1 row)

-bash-4.1$ pg_basebackup -D /opt/PostgreSQL/9.3/backup/data_pitr          -- I have my $PGDATA, $PGUSER, $PGPORT set, so its a straight command in my case
NOTICE:  pg_stop_backup complete, all required WAL segments have been archived
Current state of WAL archives and $PGDATA/pg_xlog
-bash-4.1$ ls -lrth /opt/PostgreSQL/9.3/archives
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:01 00000001000000000000001C
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:01 00000001000000000000001D
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 289 Apr  4 16:06 00000001000000000000001E.000000C8.backup
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:06 00000001000000000000001E

-bash-4.1$ ls -lrth /opt/PostgreSQL/9.3/data/pg_xlog | tail -4
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 289 Apr  4 16:06 00000001000000000000001E.000000C8.backup
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:06 00000001000000000000001E
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:06 00000001000000000000001F
drwx------ 2 postgres postgres 4.0K Apr  4 16:13 archive_status
Fine now, we have the backup copy, lets INSERT few records in three parts by noting the time, so it will help to pause recovery and additionally see the WAL's produced from the time of FSB.
-bash-4.1$ psql -c "insert into demo values (generate_series(1,1000000));"
INSERT 0 1000000
-bash-4.1$ psql -c "select count(*),now() from demo;"
  count  |              now
---------+-------------------------------
 2000000 | 2014-04-04 16:06:34.941615-07
(1 row)
-bash-4.1$ psql -c "insert into demo values (generate_series(1,1000000));"
INSERT 0 1000000
-bash-4.1$ psql -c "select count(*),now() from demo;"
  count  |              now
---------+-------------------------------
 3000000 | 2014-04-04 16:10:31.136725-07
(1 row)
-bash-4.1$ psql -c "insert into demo values (generate_series(1,1000000));"
INSERT 0 1000000
-bash-4.1$ psql -c "select count(*),now() from demo;"
  count  |              now
---------+-------------------------------
 4000000 | 2014-04-04 16:13:00.136725-07
(1 row)
Check the number of WAL's produced during the INSERT.
-bash-4.1$ ls -lrth /opt/PostgreSQL/9.3/archives
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 289 Apr  4 16:06 00000001000000000000001E.000000C8.backup
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:06 00000001000000000000001E
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:06 00000001000000000000001F
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:06 000000010000000000000020
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:06 000000010000000000000021
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:06 000000010000000000000022
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:06 000000010000000000000023
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:06 000000010000000000000024
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:06 000000010000000000000025
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:06 000000010000000000000026
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:10 000000010000000000000027
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:10 000000010000000000000028
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:10 000000010000000000000029
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:10 00000001000000000000002A
-rw------- 1 postgres postgres 16M Apr  4 16:13 00000001000000000000002B
Assume at this point mishap happened and you have to do recovery using FSB + WAL archives + Unarchived WAL's(if any). During recovery, I want to pause three time to see each recovery of 20,00,000, 30,00,000 and 40,00,000 rows of DEMO table by connecting to the database in READ-ONLY mode. For each resume of recovery need a restart of recovery cluster by bumping to new timeline in recovery.conf/recovery_target_time. Also,in $FSB/postgresql.conf, we have to set hot_standby=on. Here's my recovery.conf file:
-bash-4.1$ more recovery.conf
pause_at_recovery_target = true
#recovery_target_time = '2014-04-04 16:06:34'   # For 2 lakh records
#recovery_target_time = '2014-04-04 16:10:31'   # For 3 lakh records
#recovery_target_time = '2014-04-04 16:13:00'   # For 4 lakh records
restore_command = 'cp /opt/PostgreSQL/9.3/archives/%f %p'
Let's start recovery for 20,00,000 records:
-bash-4.1$ /opt/PostgreSQL/9.3/bin/pg_ctl -D /opt/PostgreSQL/9.3/data_pitr/ start
server starting

Now in logs:

-bash-4.1$ more postgresql-2014-04-04_162524.log
2014-04-04 16:25:24 PDT-24187---[] LOG:  starting point-in-time recovery to 2014-02-06 18:48:56-08
2014-04-04 16:25:24 PDT-24187---[] LOG:  restored log file "00000001000000000000001E" from archive
2014-04-04 16:25:24 PDT-24187---[] LOG:  redo starts at 0/1E0000C8
2014-04-04 16:25:24 PDT-24187---[] LOG:  consistent recovery state reached at 0/1E000190
2014-04-04 16:25:24 PDT-24185---[] LOG:  database system is ready to accept read only connections
2014-04-04 16:25:24 PDT-24187---[] LOG:  restored log file "00000001000000000000001F" from archive
2014-04-04 16:25:24 PDT-24187---[] LOG:  restored log file "000000010000000000000020" from archive
2014-04-04 16:25:25 PDT-24187---[] LOG:  restored log file "000000010000000000000021" from archive
2014-04-04 16:25:25 PDT-24187---[] LOG:  restored log file "000000010000000000000022" from archive
2014-04-04 16:25:25 PDT-24187---[] LOG:  recovery stopping before commit of transaction 1833, time 2014-04-04 16:06:23.893487-07
2014-04-04 16:25:25 PDT-24187---[] LOG:  recovery has paused
2014-04-04 16:25:25 PDT-24187---[] HINT:  Execute pg_xlog_replay_resume() to continue
Cool, see in logs it has paused and a smart HINT asking to resume. Here, if the recovery was satisfactory, you can resume it by calling "select pg_xlog_replay_resume();"(You can check it out). Lets not resume now, however check the number of rows recovered by connecting to the server.
-bash-4.1$ psql -c "select count(*),pg_is_in_recovery() from demo;"
  count  | pg_is_in_recovery
---------+-------------------
 2000000 | t
(1 row)
Good, it has reached to the point and paused where I requested. Lets move one more step ahead for recovering 30,00,000 rows.  Now, set the next timeline in recovery.conf/recovery_target_time and restart the cluster.
2014-04-04 16:28:40 PDT-24409---[] LOG:  restored log file "00000001000000000000002A" from archive
2014-04-04 16:28:40 PDT-24409---[] LOG:  recovery stopping before commit of transaction 1836, time 2014-04-04 16:10:40.141175-07
2014-04-04 16:28:40 PDT-24409---[] LOG:  recovery has paused
2014-04-04 16:28:40 PDT-24409---[] HINT:  Execute pg_xlog_replay_resume() to continue.

-bash-4.1$ psql -c "select count(*),pg_is_in_recovery() from demo;"
  count  | pg_is_in_recovery
---------+-------------------
 3000000 | t
(1 row)
Nice..., let's give the last attempt to pause at 40,00,000 rows.
2014-04-04 20:09:07 PDT-4723---[] LOG:  restored log file "00000001000000000000002B" from archive
cp: cannot stat `/opt/PostgreSQL/9.3/archives/00000001000000000000002C': No such file or directory
2014-04-04 20:09:07 PDT-4723---[] LOG:  redo done at 0/2B0059A0
2014-04-04 20:09:07 PDT-4723---[] LOG:  last completed transaction was at log time 2014-04-04 16:11:12.264512-07
2014-04-04 20:09:07 PDT-4723---[] LOG:  restored log file "00000001000000000000002B" from archive
2014-04-04 20:09:07 PDT-4723---[] LOG:  restored log file "00000002.history" from archive
2014-04-04 20:09:07 PDT-4723---[] LOG:  restored log file "00000003.history" from archive
2014-04-04 20:09:07 PDT-4723---[] LOG:  restored log file "00000004.history" from archive
cp: cannot stat `/opt/PostgreSQL/9.3/archives/00000005.history': No such file or directory
2014-04-04 20:09:07 PDT-4723---[] LOG:  selected new timeline ID: 5
cp: cannot stat `/opt/PostgreSQL/9.3/archives/00000001.history': No such file or directory
2014-04-04 20:09:07 PDT-4723---[] LOG:  archive recovery complete
2014-04-04 20:09:08 PDT-4721---[] LOG:  database system is ready to accept connections
2014-04-04 20:09:08 PDT-4764---[] LOG:  autovacuum launcher started

-bash-4.1$ psql -c "select count(*),pg_is_in_recovery() from demo;"
  count  | pg_is_in_recovery
---------+-------------------
 4000000 | f
(1 row)
Oops, what happened, why it has not paused and what its complaining?. Keep in mind, if no WAL archives present at the time of recovery_target_time then it won't pause and expect as it has arrived to the last point and open the database for READ/WRITE. In logs, without much stretch make out it was hunting down for file "00000001000000000000002C" which's not available, because at that time cluster has crashed. Some may not acknowledge this behaviour but its fact and makes sense when no WAL archives present then there's no reason for pausing the recovery. If at all required to pause even after no WAL archives, then make use of standby_mode='on' (HOT_STANDBY), in this method it won't come out of recovery but wait for WAL Archives.

Hope it was useful.

--Raghav